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HITLER



AT THE

FRONT






TD CONNER





Writeplace Press 2020

HITLER AT THE FRONT


















Published 2020 by Writeplace Press


POB 9704


Savannah, GA 31412








Copyright 2019 TD Conner


All rights reserved. Except for brief quotations in a review this book or any part thereof, may not be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior or written permission of the publisher.


HITLER AT THE FRONT






















Also by TD Conner:


The Rifles of Elm Street: History Takes a Detour


War on the South Coast 1861-1865


Node Space, stories


Mountain Romance, fiction


Demolition Man: Hitler, from Braunau to the Bunker


Ironwork of Savannah


Pirates and Raiders of the Southern Shore


Nazi Medical Experiments


Young William Bonney, screenplay


HITLER AT THE FRONT


PREFACE



The 1914 outbreak of the Great War, as it has come to be known, lifted the hearts, minds and spirits of many people in Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.


At last the two Imperial regimes, both ruled by German-speaking royalty, would have a chance to crush their long-perceived enemies, France, Russia, and Britain, and in the case of Austria-Hungary, to give payback to upstart Serbia for the travesty occurring that summer in Sarajevo, the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Empire’s throne.


Or so ran the popular sentiment at the time--feelings which would change as the massive bloodletting continued endlessly, generating death, destruction, depravation and desperation-- to those of anger, helplessness and deep, soul-searing depression.


But at the start, happy, eager crowds filled the streets and squares when war was declared to hear the rousing, high-energy nationalist patriotic speeches detailing with great, heartfelt emotion just how the Teutonic armies would soon drive all enemies before them, ending this short, glorious war in a smashing triumph before Christmas.


Among the masses jamming the streets of Munich during this delirium was a young Austrian--Adolf Hitler, later to become Fuhrer of Germany.


A picture of the fevered crowd in the Odeonsplatz was taken by Heinrich Hoffmann, who would one day become the official photographer of the Nazi regime, and who showed his work to his Fuhrer in later years. It was the face of an eager young man--Hitler-- one face in a sea of faces, glowing in warm approval of the stirring phrases being mouthed from an unseen dais by some demagogue.


As history details, Hitler soon joined the Bavarian (German) Army. He then spent four full years fighting in and near the trenches of the Western Front. (Bavaria at the time was an autonomous kingdom under the auspices of Imperial Germany.)


The veteran Hitler emerged at the end of the war in 1918 outraged, as were many Germans, at the Fatherland’s stunning defeat and what he saw as a twisted “new” Germany taking shape after the conflict: Marxists seizing violent control of sections of the country; a roaring inflation where profiteers made fortunes off the plight of others, leading to grinding, relentless poverty; maimed and decorated veterans begging in the streets; a great decline in social mores; forced reparations paid to scornful foreigners; joblessness; the open, unhindered rise of prostitution and hard


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drug use; and allied military occupation of parts of Germany, along with full control by the victorious foreigners over the weak Weimar government which replaced Kaiser Wilhelm.


He blamed the Social Democrats, the trade unions, Marxists, “slackers,” prostitutes, Reds, and Jews for what had happened to his beloved Germany. He resolved to do something about it.


He went into politics.


This presentation is not meant to be a recapitulation of the great battles, strategy, or maneuvers which occurred for four years along the Western Front.


Many excellent books expertly cover all facets of that subject.*


This is a focus on events affecting or affected by Hitler’s List Regiment and thus Hitler himself.


This book starts with an outline of some of the events and incidents which molded and shaped the rather shiftless, uneducated young man who joined the List Regiment at the end of summer 1914.


No official records have been found of Hitler’s day-to-day activities along the war front, but it is known that he first served as a front line infantry soldier, later as a military courier.


NB: I am not an academic, nor do I claim to be a “scholar.” I approached this presentation purely as an ex-newspaperman, a writer much interested in history. I do not read or speak the German language and thus have relied on some of the “non-primary” sources and translations available in English. I much appreciate the help of the friendly and skillful staff at the University of South Carolina’s ultra-modern Bluffton Campus Library.


* A very good account of WWI is that of Gerard de Groot, The First World War.











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1



Adolf Hitler, the Fuhrer of Germany, was born on April 20 1889 in Braunau-am-Inn, Austria, just across the Inn River from Bavaria.


His father, Alois, was a mid-level official with the Austrian Customs Service.


Due to requirements of that job, the family moved from time to time during Hitler’s growing-up days to locations in both Germany and Austria. Hitler spent part of his school days in Linz, an Upper Austrian town rich in architecture and history. His father, with whom he had a contentious relationship, died in January 1903.


At a young age, Hitler told his family he intended to become an artist. His father took bitter exception to that plan and ordered his son to follow a path leading to a civil service career. Hitler refused to accept his father’s wishes and ill will rose between the two of them.


Hitler always claimed Linz as his hometown though he only lived there for about two years. While he was Fuhrer he laid out plans to rebuild and renovate Linz.


This included opening a large hotel there along with an art museum full of paintings, many of them stolen by his underlings in the Nazi Party since 1933.


No one except Hitler ever voiced support for the Linz renovation plan (other than the Nazi satrap who ruled there until 1945,) but the dictator’s word was law.


He said he would build his retirement retreat on the Freinberg Mountain near Linz after the hoped-for WWII victory and live there with “Fraulein (Eva) Braun,” and his dog Blondi in a modern-equipped home designed to look outwardly like a simple Austrian farmhouse.


While Fuhrer, Hitler had his friend, the architect Hermann Giesler, prepare him a special model of Linz, complete with the improvements he had designed over much of his life built in.


Giesler even installed special lighting on the table model so Hitler could view his new Linz in morning sunshine, at dusk, and at mid-day. At the end of his days, with Russian shells thudding down in the streets near the Berlin Chancellery, Hitler would spend long hours in his underground warren, carefully studying his Linz model.



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In his “final testament,” dictated to a secretary the day before he took his life, he referred to the art collection he planned to send to the Linz museum he wanted built.


Nibelung Bridge


One of the few civic improvements Hitler was able to carry out while Fuhrer still exists in Linz, the Nibelung Bridge, the Nibelungs being a mythical race of dwarfs in the Old Norse legends, all of which were carefully studied and often recounted by Hitler for the knot of hangers-on and sycophants in his entourage very late into the long nights at his Berghof home when he entertained his guests with drawn-out, repetitive monologues until near-dawn during WWII. (He said he couldn’t sleep until he felt the last allied bomber had left the skies over Germany.)


Among other improvements Hitler envisioned in Linz were a large Nazi Party


center with seats for 100,000 people, a Bismarck Monument, a new city hall, a home


for the region’s governors, a grave for his parents with a steeple Hitler ordered to be


built taller than the St. Stephen’s Church tower in Vienna, a large sports stadium, a grand hotel with a special tunnel beneath it linking it with the local railroad station,


a flying school for the air force, a music school, and a special “Adolf Hitler School.”


Following is a brief look at the influences helping to mold the 25-year-old foot soldier who arrived on the Western Front with the List Regiment (also known as Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment 16) in the autumn of 1914.


Hitler was a lifelong opera fan, the music of Richard Wagner being his favorite.


When young, he attended performances at the Linz Municipal Theater when


he could. Being a near-penniless youth, he could never afford seating, but he was occasionally able to pay for a place set aside at reduced fees for standees, called the “promenade.”


Hitler had a favorite spot in the hall near the two giant columns at the entrance.


After attending several performances, he noticed another young man who also liked to hear and see the opera performers while standing near the columns--and who


sometimes arrived earlier than Hitler and took his favorite nook--August Kubizek, son of a Linz upholsterer.


Hitler made few genuine friends in his life, but in Linz he became close with


Kubizek and would later move to Vienna and share an apartment with him, their


friendship staying strong until Hitler’s income waned and he slid into the depths of poverty, becoming a tramp on Vienna’s streets, sleeping in parks and doorways, finally


surviving in men’s shelters and soup kitchens there.


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In 1905, the 16-year-old Hitler dropped out of school in Steyr, Austria, never to return to a classroom. Later in his life Hitler described this period, saying that by the time he had left school he “had become a nationalist,” with a desire to “preserve the German stock in Austria from incursions from the east,” and to plan for their later incorporation into what Hitler called the Reich--Greater Germany.


In 1906, Kubizek recalled accompanying him to a performance of the Wagner opera Rienzi, the story of a man who became a “tribune of the people.” Kubizek told how after the final act, Hitler led the way late at night to the peak of the Freinberg Mountain and there, much moved by the opera, Adolf spoke feverishly into the darkness surrounding them, comparing himself to Rienzi, telling his friend he had a “special mission” in life and that someday he would rise to be “the leader of the people.” He also told Kubizek that one day there would be a German Reich. 1


In 1907, despite having dropped out of middle school, Hitler felt capable of entering the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, so he could pursue his career plans, develop his painting abilities, and equally important, mingle with artists.


He appeared at the Vienna Academy on October 1 for the two-day entrance test at the General School of Painting, a wing of the institution.


On the second day of testing, Hitler was told he would not be admitted as an art student, but the school’s Rector remarked to him that it appeared from his paintings that he had a feeling for architecture.


Hitler took this in stride, having long admired the architecture in Linz and Passau, Germany where he once lived, and having carefully studied pictures of other European architectural treasures in books, along with up close viewings of Vienna‘s many famous and beautiful buildings.


He said in his book “..I knew that some day I ought to become an architect.” 2


Not long afterward, he applied to the Academy’s School of Architecture, but was told he couldn’t be admitted without a school diploma.


Crushed and angry at this rejection, for which he blamed Jewish judges at the school, he returned to Linz to help his mother during her treatment for cancer. She died in December 1907. In mid-February 1908, he returned to Vienna, this time to





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stay. He rented an apartment at 31 Stumpergasse in the Mariahilf District for 10 kronen per month after applying to the government for his orphan’s pension, which was awarded to him.


He began writing to Kubizek back in Linz, urging his friend to move to Vienna and share his apartment.


Kubizek obliged, moving in with Hitler in late February and enrolling in music school. At the end of the school term in early July, Kubizek went home to Linz. (In his book, The Young Hitler I Knew, Kubizek says the address was 29 Stumpergasse, but latter-day historians say he got the street number wrong, that the building is actually at number 31.)


In September, desperate and having become ever more furious at his earlier rejection, Hitler again sought to take the test for admission to the Academy of Fine Arts’ School of Painting. This time he was denied admission to even take the entrance examination after faculty members viewed his sample paintings.


After this disappointment, Hitler abruptly moved out of the apartment he shared with Kubizek, who had by then been called away for reserve training with the Austrian Army, but was still a paying tenant. Hitler paid his share of November’s rent and then also rented another apartment at 22 Felbergasse.


He left no forwarding address with the landlady.


He was gone when Kubizek returned to Vienna in late November.


In his book, Hitler writes: “It was during this period that my eyes were opened to two perils…Marxism and Judaism.” 3


August didn’t see him again until April 1938. Kubizek had sent him friendly messages, one in 1933 congratulating Hitler on coming to power, another message around the time of the Anschluss -- the Nazi-inspired incorporation of Austria into Greater Germany.


Hitler arrived, triumphant, in Linz in 1938, inviting Kubizek to meet him at his hotel where the two friends had a sit-down together.


* * *




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Hitler stayed at his Felbergasse apartment in Vienna until August, 1909, telling the landlady there that he was a “student.”


Kubizek said after WWI, he had occasionally read news stories about a Munich politician named Hitler giving speeches, but he thought it was someone other than his long-ago roommate. Then, finally seeing a newspaper photograph of Hitler, he realized it was the friend he knew from his youth.


After the 1938 meeting they met again in 1939 and 1940 when Hitler invited Kubizek to the Richard Wagner Festival in Bayreuth, the composer’s hometown.


Hitler never said why he left the apartment and ended (or suspended) his friendship with Kubizek. Some historians have suggested without proof that he suddenly departed because he found out that Austro-Hungarian Empire Army representatives were trying to contact him at the time to come in for a pre-induction physical examination.


Hitler swore he would never fight in an army called to battle on behalf of a multi-cultural nation like Austria-Hungary. He never registered for the Austrian military draft during his time in Vienna as the law required.


He disliked all royalty, but was particularly venomous toward the Austrian Hapsburgs.


Some historians suggest he broke contact with Kubizek because he was jealous that his friend was making progress in his music studies, working toward a life-goal, while he, Hitler, had zero prospects and his money was running out.


Notes, Chapter 1


  1. ) The Young Hitler I Knew, (TYHIK) Kubizek, August, 1955, Tower Books ed.


New York Page 189


(There are two versions of the Kubizek book, the first published in English in New


York in 1955 by Tower Books following a European-language version published in 1953. A later edition is the Greenhill Books version released in 2006. Parts of the


1955 version, some sections very lengthy, have been edited out of the 2006 version. )


  1. ) Mein Kampf (MK) Hitler, Adolf, 1925, Hurst & Blackett ed. London 1939 Page



3.) Ibid, Page 22.




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2



Hitler always called the period he spent in Vienna his “time of study.”


He admitted publicly that much of his reading was in the form of free newspapers and the anti-Semitic pamphlets he found in Vienna’s coffeehouses, many of them authored by one Lanz von Liebenfels (real name: Adolf Josef Lanz,) a publisher who also produced a lurid hate-filled magazine, Ostara, featuring pictures of scantily-dressed blonde, blue-eyed women interspersed with slur-laden “articles” criticizing Jews, Slavs, Magyars, Gypsies, and Negroes. Hitler avidly read the magazine and even collected back issues.


In addition to Ostara Hitler also sometimes purchased and read hateful penny-pamphlets at news stands.


He also devoured mainstream newspapers set out in the reading room of the shelter where he lived, the Mannerheim.


His friend Kubizek wrote: “…When I met Adolf Hitler first (Ed.: in Linz,) his anti-Semitism was already pronounced.” 1


In Mein Kampf, Hitler paints the picture of his father as being liberal. However Kubizek recounts that the table to which Alois Hitler often adjourned in a Linz tavern was used primarily by a group which endorsed and discussed the ideas of Georg Ritter von Schonerer, an anti-royalist, anti-Semitic, and anti-clerical writer and speaker in Germany until his death in 1918 (thus implying that Hitler absorbed anti-Semitic ideas at home in Linz while still a child.) 2


However Hitler wrote in Mein Kampf: “… It is hard for me to say when the word ‘Jew’ first began to raise any particular thought in my mind. I do not remember even having heard the word at home during my father’s lifetime.”3


At any rate, by the time he arrived in Vienna to stay, Hitler was both anti-Semitic and known to despise trade unions and Social Democrats. (As Fuhrer, he abolished all non-Nazi unions and rival political parties.)


His friend Kubizek wrote of the time Hitler walked into their apartment and said:


“Today I joined the Anti-Semite Society, and I have put your name down as well.”4





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At the time, the Social Democrat Party in both Austria and Germany represented pure socialism. Hitler wrote of the time he obtained a job at a Vienna construction site.


At their lunch break, the men in his crew, all Social Democrats, would discuss and espouse socialistic ideas.


One day, they told him he needed to join their trade union. Hitler told them he wouldn’t be forced into anything. As the days passed, the men continued promoting socialist-style politics with him and insisting he join their union but Hitler declined, angrily arguing against their political positions all the while.


He later wrote that he thought their union was controlled by Jews.


Finally he said, they told him to leave their job site or the next time he went up to perform work on the scaffold, they would toss him off. “I went away, full of disgust,” he wrote. 5


Not much is known about Hitler after he left the Stumpergasse apartment.


Other people who lived at his Felbergasse address had only vague memories of him at the time as a pale, thin boy with shoulder-length hair who read a lot. They said they could feel he wanted to avoid them, but if he did encounter them in the hallways or in front of the building, he was always polite.


A Homeless Tramp


Hitler still received his orphan’s pension, but his older sister asked him to allow it to be sent to his younger sister, Paula. Without argument, he agreed to this plan. He still had no job and now there was no steady income. He moved to a smaller room at 58 Sechhauserstrasse, Unit 21. He stayed there one month, then left.


After this, he became a homeless tramp.


He slept in the city’s parks and doorways and often stayed in the all-night coffeehouses, still reading his hate literature and dozing.


In late November, he registered at the Asyl fur Obdachlose, a night shelter in the working class district of Meidling supported by philanthropic Jewish families.



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He met one Reinhold Hanisch, a Sudeten German, and told him he was a painter of artistic subjects.


Hanisch told Hitler he also was a part-time painter, but that his everyday calling was working as a house servant and handyman.


Hanisch immediately arranged a deal wherein Hitler would view postcards, then paint his own version of their displays, then he and Hanisch could sell the paintings, primarily to furniture dealers whom it was hoped, would mount them on used and new furniture so as to dress up the items for a quicker sale.


Hanisch said income from any works he sold would be split 50-50 and that he also would labor among the diners in Vienna‘s many cafes, posing as a blind man to garner sympathy and boost sales.


Hitler told Hanisch he wasn’t presentable enough for sales work, citing his worn-out clothing, now discolored and still reeking from the chemicals the home had used to disinfect them along with his pale appearance and long hair, which he refused to cut. Hanisch then agreed to handle all of the sales work.


Hanisch told Hitler he needed better clothes, starting with a winter overcoat.


He suggested a shop in a Jewish neighborhood, but Hitler angrily told him he had been cheated there when he sold his own coat to pay for food when he was homeless.


Hitler said he had no brushes, easels, or canvas. Hanisch suggested he contact a relative and secure a loan.


Some historians say Hitler then wrote to his Aunt Johanna back in Spital, others say it was his married sister Angela Raubal, still in Linz with her family whom he asked for money.


At any rate, a 50-kronen note arrived at the post office shortly afterward. Hitler was able to buy an overcoat at a government-run shop and some painting supplies. Hanisch told him to get to work.


Hitler then said he needed a week to “rest,” and that there was no place to paint at the Asyl. Hanisch then told Hitler about a bigger shelter, some distance away at 27 Meldemannstrasse, where there was a small cost to rent a room and obtain hot meals.




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He said the establishment, known as the Mannerheim, had several reading and writing rooms and that Hitler could work quietly there. They both arranged to move to the Mannerheim, but at the last moment, Hanisch was offered a job as a servant and didn’t accompany Hitler, who did make the transfer in February 1910.


Hitler paid his modest fee, let the staff disinfect his clothing, then took a third floor room. Several days later, Hanisch arrived, saying his job didn’t pan out after all.


Hanisch later wrote that Hitler was lazy, even though he, Hanisch worked hard to sell Hitler’s paintings, and with some success. He said Hitler worked by himself in a corner of the common room of their hostel, but work began only after Hitler had read all the newspapers displayed there for residents.


He said if someone came in with another newspaper, Hitler would ask to read that, as well, skipping work that much longer.


He said that politics was often discussed in the common room and that Hitler would leap to his feet, his eyes glowing, and expound endlessly on his ideas, ignoring the work that kept money in both their pockets. Hanisch said the two of them began to argue over Hitler’s alleged laziness. 6


Their business relationship then dissolved and they became bitter enemies. Some historians question much of what Hanisch wrote later about Hitler.


When Hitler came to power, Hanisch began producing paintings and selling them by saying they were done by his old friend, the Fuhrer. Hitler found out about it. By then he had forgotten their early friendship and recalled only their falling-out.


He had Hanisch arrested and sent to a prison in Vienna, where he died. Some historians say Hitler had him murdered while incarcerated.


Negative Ideas


Hitler later wrote that his negative ideas about Jews and Marxism solidified during this time in Vienna and entrenched themselves in his mind.


In Mein Kampf, recalling his Vienna days, he says: “The Jewish doctrine of Marxism repudiates the aristocratic principle of Nature and substitutes for it the eternal privilege of force and energy, numerical mass and its dead weight. Thus it denies the individual worth of the human personality, impugns the teaching that


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nationhood and race have a primary significance, and by doing that it takes away the very foundations of human existence and human civilization. If the Marxist teaching were to be accepted as the foundation of the universe, it would lead to the disappearance of all order that is conceivable to the human mind. And thus the adoption of such a law would provoke chaos in the structure of the greatest organism we know, with the result that the inhabitants of this planet would finally disappear.


“Should the Jew, with the aid of his Marxist creed, triumph over the people of this world, his Crown (sic) will be the funeral wreath of mankind and this planet will once again follow its orbit through the ether, without any human life on its surface, as it did millions of years ago.


“And so I believe today (Ed.: writing in 1923,) that my conduct is in accordance with the will of our Almighty Creator. In standing guard against the Jew, I am defending the handiwork of God.” 7


On May 16, 1913 Hitler petitioned a district court in Linz to be awarded the final payment of his father’s governmental pension and inheritance, a move allowed only to a person who was nearing or had reached the age of 24.


The court awarded him 819 kronen, a large sum at that time.


Not long afterward, Hitler and a friend he had met at the Mannerheim and shared his small room with, Rudolph Hausler, moved to Munich. Hausler was the scion of a well-off Vienna family who had been disowned by his father and put out of the family residence and who then became a drifter.


Some historians say Hitler waited until 1913 to make his move because he felt that by that time he was past the age that registration for the Austrian military draft was required.


However this proved to be an erroneous idea. (In Mein Kampf, Hitler says wrongly that he moved to Munich in 1912. )













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Notes, Chapter 2


1.) TYHIK Kubizek, August, Tower Books ed., New York 1955 Page 79


2.) TYHIK Kubizek, August, Greenhill Books ed. London 2006 Page 93


  1. ) MK, Hitler, Adolf, Page 39


  1. ) TYHIK, Kubizek, August, Tower Books ed. New York 1955 Page 226 5.) MK, Hitler, Adolf, Page 33


6.) I Was Hitler’s Buddy, Hanisch, Reinhold, New Republic Magazine, New York 1939


7.) MK, Hitler, Adolf, Page 45














































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3



On May 26 1913, Hitler and Rudolph Hausler arrived in Munich. The same day, they rented a third floor furnished room at 34 Schleissheimerstrasse at the edge of the artists and students’ section of the city known then and now as Schwabing.


The landlord was a tailor, Josef Popp, who had a shop on the ground floor of his building. At the time, the Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin (real name: Vladimir Illyich Ulyanov) lived just up the street at 106 Schleissheimerstrasse.


Popp and his wife, Anna had two children, Peppi and Liesel.


Hitler settled in and continued painting his pictures and seeking to market them in taverns and at furniture stores.


Hausler occasionally helped with sales, but Hitler said he wasn’t as good a salesman as Hanisch had been back in Vienna. He wrote that business in Munich was not as brisk as it had been in Vienna.


Unbeknownst to Hitler, the Linz police were searching for him. They wanted to talk to him about avoiding the Austrian military draft.


Hitler and Hausler remained in their room at Popp’s, Hitler continuing with his painting and being frugal with the money he had been awarded. Both tailor Popp and his wife, along with Hausler, later recalled that Hitler never spent much money on food in those days, surviving mostly on a chunk of bread and a small bottle of milk he purchased each day around 5 pm.


August Kubizek also recalled these as being Hitler’s primary menu items most days.


Popp and his wife took a liking to their young tenant and occasionally asked him to join them for a meal in their quarters, but both said later that Hitler never accepted such invitations, even though they were repeated often. He did come to hold the Popps and their children in high regard, however, as his letters to Herr Popp from the Western Front in the opening days of WWI revealed later. See below.


Not much is remembered about Hausler. He moved out of Hitler’s room shortly after their arrival in Munich and into another room in the same building. After WWII, the Popps said he told them Hitler distracted him too much with his endless attempts to discuss politics, or specifically, to spell out his personal positions on various issues 17

HITLER AT THE FRONT



of the day to Hausler, who came to know them by heart and got tired of listening again and again.


However the two young Austrians remained friends after Hausler moved. Hausler finally returned to Vienna. Hitler stayed in touch with him by mail until the beginning of WWI.


On January 18 1914, Hitler was arrested by the Munich police on a warrant out of Austria. He was held overnight and the next day he was escorted to the Austrian Consulate.


There he was told to report to Linz for his Austrian Army physical examination by January 20.


Hitler used every bit of his persuasive powers on the Consul who met with him.


The official finally came to sympathize with the young, thin, long-haired man in shabby clothes before him and allowed him to send a telegram to the Linz authorities asking for a postponement of his appointment.


It was at this time that Hitler also consulted with Ernst Hepp, a lawyer recommended to him by the Popps, who later became a Munich assistant judge and tax official.


The answer came back from Austria: be in Linz January 20.


Sorrow, Need, Hunger


The Consul then let Hitler, closely assisted by Lawyer Hepp, write a groveling, obsequious letter to the Linz authorities filled with excuses, pleading poverty, profusely apologizing for failing to register, begging forgiveness, asking for mercy. It said, in part: “For two years, my only girl friends were sorrow and need, and I had no other companion except for constant, unsatisfied hunger.”1


The Consul, by now totally on Hitler’s side, sent his own note along, saying that Hitler seemed sincere and honest. A reply came back: report to Salzburg (much closer to Munich) on February 5.


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